Every cell originates from a single cell which is the fertilized egg. For becoming a specialized cell such as blood, heart or nerve cells, it follows a genetic program. This genetic program identifies the identity of a cell, its features, and functions.
Around 40,000 cells of 25 different types were isolated from zebrafish over a period of nine hours. To investigate the maturation of cells, RNA was analyzed, a copy of genetic material.
The genetic program that a cell follows on the way to maturity and path to development is more flexible than expected. So far it was assumed that the developing of a cell is a predetermined path like marbles rolling down a hill which stops its rolling at some point of time. But the study now has proved that cells leave their initial trajectory, change their path and takes a new identity.
Pluripotent stem cells can be turned into any cell type in the body. They are used as a key therapeutic resource for incurable conditions such as heart failure, Parkinson disease, and blindness. They are used for studying various diseases and to test new drugs in human cells.
Scientists discovered that by treating ordinary skin cells with certain proteins, pluripotent stem cells can be formed which is helpful for various incurable conditions.
Another study shows turning of skin cells into stem cells using CRISPR. CRISPR is a powerful tool that can manipulate a genome by targeting a unique sequence of DNA. That sequence of DNA will be deleted permanently or will be replaced. It can also temporarily turn on or off a DNA.
- Skin cells help to repair nerve damage
- Cancer stem cells destroyed by using drug filled nanoparticles
- A new stem cell pathway that drives the development of highly aggressive triple-negative breast cancer.
- A new form of DNA i-motifs in cells
Stem cells can give rise to any tissue found in the body and, as a result, can provide nearly limitless potential for medical applications (regenerative medicine). Current studies are researching how stem cells may be used to prevent or cure diseases and injuries such as Parkinson’s disease, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer’s disease, strokes, burns, osteoarthritis, vision and hearing loss. Stem cells could also be used to replace or repair tissue damaged by disease or injury.
For more details obliquely visit: https://goo.gl/2aX5mA