Tuberculosis is generally caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis which affects the lungs and sometimes affects the other parts of the body. This acts as an infectious disease as about 1% of the world population is affected by this infection every year. They are chronic cough with blood containing sputum, night sweats, weight loss, and fever. When the infection is spread to other organs it may cause a serious impact.
Tuberculosis acts as a communicable disease which spread through the air. People with infection in lungs spread infection through a cough, spit, speak and sneeze.
These are mainly found in the people who are infected with HIV AIDS and those who smoke. Deduction and treatment must be done in the early period based on the X-ray and microscopic examination of the body fluids.
They can be divided into pulmonary and extrapulmonary. Pulmonary infection is where the disease spread inside the lungs which causes a cough with blood in some extreme cases they may erode the pulmonary artery which could result in the excessive blood loss. Whereas extrapulmonary which affects outside the lungs which generally affects the people with weaker immune system.
Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria as the effective treatment for this infection is still under research however drug treatment is the only effective way to treat tuberculosis. There are more than twenty vaccines available to cure tuberculosis among that the vaccine that is used widely is BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin) as it has the high immunity content which could last for almost ten years. There are some cases where the drug given to the new patient when there is no suggestion of any other resistance is generally called as first line drug whereas the drug used for drug resistance are called second line drugs.
This is administered only to the people wit high risk as the park of reasoning that the use of this vaccine makes the tuberculin skin test a false positive report which reduces the test usefulness of the screening tool.
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