In in vitro assays in many different formats of Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are used in a wide range. The formats of the technology range from sophisticated flow cytometry (FCM) to simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Increased hormone levels characteristic of disease states.
Lymphocyte phenotyping (lymphocyte subset enumeration) is a routine test used to screen for immunodeficiencies, evaluate disease progress, support a tentative diagnosis, and provide prognostic information. In patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), FCM is used to monitor CD4 cell numbers. An inverse correlation exists between CD4 numbers and the risk for specific bacterial and fungal infections. Clinicians use CD4 data to determine when and what type of prophylactic antibiotic therapy should be implemented. FCM is also used to differentiate between acute B cell leukemia (ABCL) and myelogenous leukemia, to diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to differentiate between hairy cell leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Proper identification and classification of hematopoietic neoplasms are critical because treatment of leukemia and lymphoma are radically different. For example, CLL is usually treated with nucleoside analogs and alemtuzumab directed at CD52 expressed by leukemic cells. First-line therapy for hairy cell leukemia is chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA). Conversely, mantle cell lymphoma is treated with hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dexamethasone, with or without rituximab.
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